The world is facing a triple planetary crisis of climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss. The trend in forest loss, land degradation and the extinction of species is becoming worse, posing a severe threat to the health of the planet and people. Goal 15 will not be met without a dramatic shift in our relationship with our natural environment.
The world’s forest area continues to decline, from 31.9 per cent in 2000 to 31.2 per cent in 2020, representing a net loss of 100 million hectares. Agricultural expansion is the direct driver of almost 90 per cent of global deforestation.
In recent years, global coverage of marine, terrestrial, freshwater and mountain key biodiversity areas have continued to increase to nearly half of each site covered in 2022, on average.
Each year between 2015 and 2019, the world lost at least 100 million hectares of healthy and productive land, affecting food and water security globally. If land degradation continues at a similar rate, it would result in an additional 1.5 billion hectares of degraded land by 2030.
Globally, the Red List Index – established on the basis of repeat assessments of every species across groups of mammals, birds, amphibians and corals – deteriorated by about 4 per cent from 2015 to 2023.
The Republic of Uzbekistan is a country with an arid climate, with a total area of about 44.9 million hectares, which consists mainly of mountains and plains, including mostly desert and semi-desert territories, and, to a lesser extent, arable land in intensely irrigated valleys. Land use reform was mainly focused on irrigated agriculture, which occupies about 10 percent of all territories.
More than 90 percent of the crop is grown on the irrigated lands of the country. A characteristic feature of most natural ecosystems of Uzbekistan is their increased fragility associated with aridity of the climate. In this regard, the resistance of ecosystems to external influences is rather low, and any anthropogenic interference is an additional factor in the degradation of natural complexes.
Agriculture, livestock breeding, the development of energy and mining industries have a negative impact on almost all natural ecosystems in the country. Plain, foothill, water and near-water ecosystems underwent the greatest changes, especially in the lower reaches of the main rivers, including the Aral Sea region and the Aral Sea. In addition to the fact that ecosystems are under severe anthropogenic pressure, changing hydrological and climatic conditions also have a great influence on them.
Currently, the system of protected natural areas (SPAs) includes 8 reserves, 2 natural and 1 national parks, 1 biosphere reserve, 3 natural nurseries, 12 reserves, 7 natural monuments. The total area of protected areas providing sustainable biodiversity conservation is more than 5 percent of the country's area.
Target 15.1. Ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
Target 15.2. Promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation.
Target 15.3. By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.
Target 15.4. By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.
Target 15.5. Take significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
Target 15.7. Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.
Target 15.8. Take the measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.
Target 15.9. Ensure that the value of ecosystems and biodiversity is taken into account in the development of national strategies and programs for the development of industries and sectors of the economy.
Target 15.а. Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
|1||Indicator 15.1.1. Forest area as a percentage of total land area.||7||7||7,1||7,2||7,3||7,4||7,5||7,6||7,6||7,6||7,9||8||8,1||8,2||8,3||8,3||8,4||8,5||8,6||8,6||8,7||8,7||8,7|
|2||Indicator 15.2.1. Progress towards sustainable forest management:|
|a) change in net forest area, percentage;||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||185,9||185,9||185,9||185,9||185,9||185,9||219,0||219,0||219,0||219,0||219,0||234,3||234,3||234,3||234,3||234,3||244,0||244,0||244,0|
|b) terrestrial biomass stocks in forests, thousand m3;||-||-||-||-||-||-||29 128,60||30 167,80||32 212,90||40 640,90||40 708,30||41 792,60||43 121,0||54 144,6||47 828,6||49 400,2||49 603,3||51 484,4||52 689,2||53 038,5||55 000,0||60 250,0||68 991,7|
|c) proportion of forest area located in protected areas, percentage;||74,4||76,1||78,0||78,4||79,3||80,0||80,7||81,9||83,5||84,3||83,6||84,7||85,3||86,2||87,2||88,7||92,6||94,7||94,4||93,9||95,9||95,9||95,9|
|d) proportion of forest area for which a long-term forest management plan has been developed, percentage.||68,9||69,4||69,9||69,5||69,6||68,8||68,6||68,8||69,5||69,6||68,1||70,7||73,5||77,2||79,9||83,1||86,4||88,6||89,8||90,1||92,1||98,9||98,9|
|3||Indicator 15.4.2. Mountain Green Cover Index.||20,0||20,0||22,0||23,0||24,0||24,0||25,0||25,0||26,0||27,0||28,0||29,0||30,0||33,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0||36,0|
|4||Indicator 188.8.131.52. Red Book Index. 18)||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,97||0,96||0,96||0,96||0,96||0,96|
|5||Indicator 184.108.40.206. Number of biological species listed in the national Red Book:|
|6||Indicator 15.7.1. Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked.||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||1,2||2,0||0,33||0,92||2,18||3,1||2||0,8|
|7||Indicator 15.8.1. Presence of relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species.||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available||Available|
|8||Indicator 220.127.116.11. Number of national, sectoral and regional strategies and programs that take into account the value and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems.||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||4||3||3||3||2||3||3||4||3||3||1||5||7||7||7|
|9||Indicator 15.a.1.1. The share of public expenditures allocated for the conservation and rational use of biodiversity and ecosystems in the total expenditures of the state budget (percentage).||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||4,1||-|