In recent decades, income inequality has grown in almost all regions of the world, but at different rates. The strong difference in the level of inequality between countries, even when they are similar in terms of development, underlines the important role that national policies and institutions play in the evolution of inequality. In 2016, the share of national income accounted for 10% of the richest share of the population (the highest decile in terms of income) was 37% in Europe, 41% in China, 46% in Russia, 47% in the USA and Canada, and about 55% in Sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil and India. In the Middle East, the region with the highest level of inequality, the top decile accounts for 61% of national income.

Inequality in income is a global problem requiring global solutions. This includes developing programs that provide equal opportunities for all, including vulnerable and marginalized segments of the population, improving regulation and monitoring of financial markets and institutions, and encouraging foreign direct investment in lagging regions. Promoting safe migration and mobility is also key to bridge the widening gap.

In order to prevent a sharp social stratification of society over the years of independence, a set of measures has been taken in Uzbekistan to maintain an optimal level of income differentiation of individual segments of the population.

The results of measures taken in Uzbekistan contributed to a consistent decrease and stabilization at the optimal level of differentiation of incomes of the population. Thus, the income ratio of 10 percent of the most and least well-off strata of the population – the decile ratio – decreased from 21.1 times in 2001 to 6.9 times in 2020. During this period, another indicator of the differentiation of incomes of the population – the quintile coefficient – decreased from 9.9 times in 2001 to 4.5 times in 2020.

The generally accepted indicator in the world of income stratification - the Gini index - decreased over 2001-2020 from 0.395 to 0.276 with the threshold value recommended by the UN of 0.35-0.37 and the optimal level of 0.25-0.26.

At the same time, regional imbalance in socio-economic growth within the country remains an urgent problem. The per capita GDP in Tashkent is 4 times higher than in the Surkhandarya region.

In order to ensure an even distribution of the results of economic growth, Uzbekistan will strive to achieve an income growth rate of the poorest 40 percent of the population at a level exceeding the national average.

National Tasks

Target 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.

Target 10.2. Empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or social status.

Target 10.3. Ensure complete and rigorous implementation of anti-discrimination norms laws and regulations in practice, especially with regard to people in vulnerable situations.

Target 10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.

Target 10.7. Facilitate orderly, safe, regulated labour migration and effective migration policy.

National indicators

NATIONAL INDICATORS 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
1 Indicator 10.1.1. Growth rates of household expenditures or per capita income among the bottom 40 percent of the population and total population.                                            
  a) the growth rate of household income per capita among the least affluent 40 per cent of the population, % - - - - - 136,8 131,6 136,6 142,7 146,2 148,2 148,1 140,7 136,9 138,3 135,6 125,6 119,0 118,5 116,9 114,9 122,4
  b) growth rate of household income per capita among the entire population, % 155,8 149,8 142,4 123,4 117,3 124,8 131,5 128,4 133,5 132,5 129,2 133,6 119,6 119,2 114,0 113,7 114,9 117,7 124,8 119,3 112,7 121,8
2 Indicator 10.2.1. Proportion of people with income below 50 percent of median income by age and gender. 25,8 21,9 21,0 22,0 22,2 22,3 21,4 14,9 16,5 15,9 12,7 11,5 11,6 11,0 8,8 8,6 8,2 8,1 7,8 9,1 10,0 10,7
3 Indicator 10.4.1. Percentage of wages of employees as % of GDP. 5) 35,1 34,7 33,6 31,7 29,8 30,7 29,8 29,9 29,0 29,2 24,7 24,8 26,8 27,3 25,8 25,3 25,3 22,5 22,6 24,9 24,9  
4 Indicator 10.7.1. Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of monthly income earned in country of destination.                                            
  Russia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24,8 26,2 27,4 22,0 24,9
  Kazakhstan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6,7 6,8 7,0 5,0 11,7
  Turkey - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9,1 9,6 9,8 8,3 14,6
  South Korea - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6,7 5,9 6,1 8,8 11,7
5 Indicator 10.7.2. The share of labor migrants voluntarily registered on exiting the country and leaving according to the organizational hiring in their total number, %. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0,15 2,0 5,6 8,2 9,8

1) For individual years, the data have been recalculated

download (XLS, 90 КВ)