The fact that the development of education, the growth of productivity, the improvement of the healthcare system, and the growth of incomes is impossible without the development of infrastructure has gained widespread acceptance.
Another important factor in economic growth is technological progress and innovation, which play an important role in finding long-term solutions to problems of both economic, social and environmental nature, such as creating new jobs or increasing energy efficiency of production. Today, investing in research and innovation is becoming a priority for governments around the world.
According to experts, approximately 1–1.15 billion people today do not have access to reliable telephone services, more than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, of which 90 percent live in developing countries. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, and to stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship.
One of the main priorities of market reforms in Uzbekistan is the creation of a modern and reliable infrastructure. The development of infrastructure in the country is necessary not only to ensure high-quality internal communication, but for successful integration into international transport routes. Today, Uzbekistan has an extensive network of railways with a length of 6.2 thousand km, of which 4.7 thousand km are under common use. The density of railways is 13.8 km per 1,000 km2, which is comparable with the indicators of Turkey (13.4 km) and Norway (12.0 km). The total length of motor roads with hard surface is 43.8 thousand km, which is 98.7 percent of the total length of public motor roads.
Uzbekistan also has a relatively developed manufacturing industry, in 2011-2020 whose share in the structure of GDP increased from 17.4 percent to 27.4 percent, while employment in this sector at the end of 2020 reaches 11.9 percent.
In the field of innovative development, there was a tendency to a gradual weakening of innovation, as evidenced by the position of Uzbekistan in the ranking based on the Global Innovation Index for 2021 (86 place among 132 countries). For example, over the last 5 years the number of researchers (equivalent to full employment) per million inhabitants fell from 495 in 2016 to 411 in 2020. The share of expenditures on research and development in GDP fell from 0.18 percent to 0.14 percent in the period 2016-2020.
Target 9.1. Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including territorial and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access to resources for all.
Target 9.2. Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of gross domestic product as a result of advancing development of manufacturing industries, creation of new and modernization of existing enterprises with the wide application of resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies.
Target 9.3. Increase the access of small-scale industrial enterprises and microfirms to financial services, including affordable loans, and strengthen their integration into value chains and markets.
Target 9.4. By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, through increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with engagement of all interested countries in accordance with their respective capabilities.
Target 9.5. Enhance scientific research aimed at upgrading the technological capabilities of economic sectors, including thorough creating conditions favourable to innovation activity and significant increase in the number of research and development employees, increasing public and private research and development spending.
Target 9.b. Support domestic technology development, research and innovation, including by ensuring a conductive policy environment for industrial diversification and value addition to commodities.
Target 9.с. Significantly increase access to information and communication technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet.
|1||Indicator 22.214.171.124. Proportion of paved roads in total length of public roads.||96,8||97,0||97,2||97,1||97,2||97,7||97,8||97,8||97,8||97,8||98,3||98,4||98,4||98,4||98,4||98,4||98,5||98,5||98,5||98,5||98,7|
|2||Indicator 9.1.2. Volume of passenger and freight by mode of transport.|
|1. Passenger turnover, billion pass-km 1)|
|b) road transport||23,3||24,3||25,8||29,0||32,5||38,6||42,2||48,4||55,9||62,1||74,5||82,5||89,3||95,5||101,9||109,1||114,9||117,7||121,6||124,1||113,2|
|c) railway transport||2,2||2,2||2,0||2,1||2,0||2,1||2,1||2,3||2,5||2,6||2,9||3,0||3,4||3,7||3,8||3,8||4,0||4,3||4,3||4,4||1,8|
|d) air transport||3,9||3,7||3,9||4,0||4,5||4,6||4,7||5,4||5,6||4,9||5,8||6,2||7,0||7,2||7,0||6,8||6,7||7,5||8,8||11,0||3,0|
|e) urban electric transport||1,5||1,6||1,5||1,2||1,0||0,9||0,8||0,8||0,8||0,6||0,6||0,6||0,5||0,5||0,5||0,4||0,4||0,5||0,6||0,6||0,3|
|2. Cargo turnover, billion tons-km 1)|
|b) road transport||8,9||8,7||9,0||9,7||11,0||13,8||16,1||18,2||21,0||23,2||9,1||9,9||10,5||11,2||11,9||12,8||13,3||13,6||14,6||15,9||16,2|
|c) railway transport||15,0||15,7||18,4||18,9||18,0||18,1||19,3||21,6||23,4||24,2||22,3||22,5||22,7||22,9||22,9||22,9||22,9||22,9||22,9||23,4||23,6|
|d) air transport, million tons-km||120,1||96,4||126,4||95,3||117,3||97,8||77,1||76,7||84,0||102,9||168,0||162,5||121,9||116,3||125,1||131,1||132,2||156,9||123,5||119,0||219,0|
|e) pipeline transport||30,6||31,1||32,4||34,5||35,6||36,9||38,0||39,0||39,3||30,3||28,9||30,1||33,0||31,5||31,2||30,0||28,9||30,2||33,6||33,2||26,8|
|3||Indicator 9.2.1. Manufacturing added value as a percentage of GDP and per capita. 1)|
|a) share in GDP, %||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||11,6||11,5||11,9||13,0||14,1||14,1||15,0||15,5||18,2||19,6||21,2|
|b) per capita, thousand soums||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||281,4||360,5||451,5||588,8||770,7||905,9||1095,1||1354,2||2092,8||2821,6||3454,4|
|4||Indicator 9.2.2. Employment in manufacturing as a percentage of total employment. 7)||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||11,5||11,5||11,4||11,4||11,3||11,3||11,3||11,9||12,0||11,9||11,9|
|5||Indicator 126.96.36.199. The share of added value of small enterprises and microfirms in the gross value added of the entire industry, %.||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||21,4||26,6||29,3||28,1||32,4||29,2||33,3||35,6||35,9||21,6||22,0|
|6||Indicator 9.3.2. Proportion of small enterprises and micro-firms with a loan or credit line.||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||10,0||25,6|
|7||Indicator 9.4.1. CO2 emissions per unit of value added. 11)||1,54||1,47||1,45||1,33||1,21||1,08||1,04||0,94||0,9||0,83||0,72||0,7||0,65||0,54||0,52||0,47||0,44||0,45||-||-||-|
|8||Indicator 9.5.1. R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP. 1)||0,36||0,35||0,29||0,27||0,27||0,24||0,22||0,22||0,19||0,20||0,16||0,16||0,16||0,16||0,16||0,17||0,18||0,16||0,13||0,12||0,14|
|9||Indicator 9.5.2. Number of researchers (in full time equivalent) per million inhabitants.||-||-||-||566||546||569||493||470||490||517||534||564||504||497||492||487||495||485||470||407||411|
|10||Indicator 9.b.1. Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added. 1)||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||15,9||17,2||18,1||17,6||17,6||16,1||15,3||19,1||22,9||20,3||17,9|
|11||Indicator 9.c.1. Percentage of population covered by mobile networks by technology.|
|a) on 2-G technology||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||92,0||94,0||96,0||98,0|
|b) on 3-G/4-G technology||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||35,0||48,0||70,0||90,0|
1) For individual years, the data have been recalculated
7) According to OKED
11) Indicator 9.4.1 CO2 emissions per unit of value added (calculations of greenhouse gas emissions based on updated preliminary inventory data were carried out in accordance with the new IPCC guidelines).