Human life depends on the earth. Plants provide 80 percent of our food, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resource and development tool. Forests make up 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, providing a vital habitat for millions of species of flora and fauna and are an important source of clean air and water. They are also crucial for tackling climate change.

Today we are witnessing unprecedented land degradation and the loss of arable land 30-35 times faster than in the past. Drought and desertification are growing every year, resulting in the loss of 12 million hectares of land and affecting the interests of poor communities around the world. Of the 8,300 known breeds of animals, 8% are extinct, and 22% are at risk of extinction.

This goal is aimed at preserving and restoring the use of terrestrial ecosystems by 2030. Ending desertification is also vital for mitigating climate change. Urgent action is needed to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity that are part of our shared heritage.

The Republic of Uzbekistan is a country with an arid climate, with a total area of ​​about 44.5 million hectares, which consists mainly of mountains (21.2%) and plains (78.8%), including mostly desert and semi-desert territories, and, to a lesser extent, arable land in intensely irrigated valleys. Land use reform was mainly focused on irrigated agriculture, which occupies about 10% of all territories.

More than 90% of the crop is grown on the irrigated lands of the country. A characteristic feature of most natural ecosystems of Uzbekistan is their increased fragility associated with aridity of the climate. In this regard, the resistance of ecosystems to external influences is rather low, and any anthropogenic interference is an additional factor in the degradation of natural complexes.

Agriculture, livestock breeding, the development of energy and mining industries have a negative impact on almost all natural ecosystems in the country. Plain, foothill, water and near-water ecosystems underwent the greatest changes, especially in the lower reaches of the main rivers, including the Aral Sea region and the Aral Sea. In addition to the fact that ecosystems are under severe anthropogenic pressure, changing hydrological and climatic conditions also have a great influence on them.

Currently, the system of protected natural areas (SPAs) includes 8 reserves, 2 natural and 1 national parks, 1 biosphere reserve, 3 natural nurseries, 12 reserves, 7 natural monuments. The total area of ​​protected areas providing sustainable biodiversity conservation is more than 5% of the country's area.

National Tasks

15.1-Ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

15.2-Promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation.

15.3-By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.

15.4-By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

15.5-Take significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and prevent the extinction of threatened species

15.7-Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

15.8-Take the measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.

15.9-Integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national planning and development processes of the economy sectors and industries.

15a-Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.

National indicators

  2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Indicator 15.4.1 Percentage of protected mountain ecosystems in total area.  1,8 1,8 1,8 1,8 1,8
Indicator 15.4.2  Mountain green cover index.  36,0 36,0 36,0 36,0 36,0
Indicator 15.5.2 Number of species listed in the national Red list.           
   a) animals 184 184 184 184 184
   c) plants 324 324 324 324 324
Indicator 15.7.1 Share of detected illegal trade in total trade of species and products of wild flora and fauna.  - 1,2 2,0 0,33 0,9
Indicator  15.8.1 Presence of national legislation that prevents the penetration and controls the number of alien invasive species in the country.  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Indicator 15.9.1 Number of national, sectoral and regional strategies and programs that take into account the value and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems.  7 3 2 3 3